Quelles différences entre probiotiques et prébiotiques ?

Quelles différences entre probiotiques et prébiotiques ?

Les probiotiques sont des micro-organismes vivants, tandis que les prébiotiques sont des fibres alimentaires. Mais les deux présentent des atouts pour améliorer la composition du microbiote intestinal et donc notre santé.

Prébiotiques et probiotiques sont deux types de compléments alimentaires qui visent à modifier votre microbiote intestinal. Mais leur contenu est bien différent.

Les probiotiques

Les probiotiques sont des micro-organismes vivants (bactéries, levures…) qui apportent des bienfaits pour la santé. Ils se trouvent dans des compléments ou des aliments fermentés tels que : yaourts, choucroute, kimchi, kefir, kombucha… Parmi les souches probiotiques les plus souvent utilisées, se trouvent par exemple :
•    des lactobacilles : Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus, L.acidophilus et L. plantarum ;
•    des bifidobactéries : Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum ;
•    des levures (Saccharomyces).

Les probiotiques ont montré leur efficacité contre les diarrhées liées à des infections ou à la prise d’antibiotiques. Ils peuvent aussi être intéressants contre le syndrome de l’intestin irritable, pour renforcer l’immunité voire pour améliorer l’humeur (ils sont alors appelés « psychobiotiques »).

Pour en savoir plus sur l’utilisation des probiotiques, lisez Le nouveau guide des probiotiques, du Dr Daniel Sincholle.

Les prébiotiques

Les prébiotiques sont des fibres alimentaires que nous ne pouvons pas digérer mais qui servent d’alimentation à de « bonnes bactéries » de notre microbiote intestinal. Voici quelques exemples de fibres prébiotiques : les fructanes (inuline, fructo-oligosaccharides…), les galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)… Les prébiotiques sont donc des glucides complexes.

Dans Je rééquilibre mon microbiote, Martine Cotinat, gastro-entérologue, explique : « les prébiotiques sont les aliments préférés du microbiote protecteur qui va s’accroître et mieux fonctionner par l’intermédiaire des produits qu’il fabrique, comme les acides gras à courte chaîne (AGCC). » Les AGCC sont notamment le propionate, le butyrate et l’acétate, des molécules qui influencent la santé intestinale et métabolique. « De ce fait, ces prébiotiques contribuent à l’étanchéité de la barrière intestinale, à lutter contre l’inflammation et les allergies, à améliorer la satiété, à faciliter la régulation de la glycémie, à améliorer la sensibilité à l’insuline et à diminuer les triglycérides. Ils tendent à réduire la masse grasse préjudiciable pour la santé et à augmenter la masse musculaire. »

Les aliments riches en fibres prébiotiques sont par exemple : les légumineuses, les artichauts, les asperges, bananes… Attention de fortes doses de prébiotiques peuvent aussi provoquer des diarrhées.

Lire aussi : Dr Martine Cotinat : "on peut rééquilibrer son microbiote en 4 semaines"

Alimentation et microbiote intestinal

Ce que vous mangez influence directement la composition de votre microbiote intestinal et donc votre santé. Les déséquilibres du microbiote, ou dysbioses, sont associés à de nombreux problèmes ou maladies : obésité, diabète de type 2, maladies inflammatoires de l’intestin…

L’alimentation occidentale, riche en sucres, additifs chimiques et produits ultra-transformés, fragilise notre microbiote.

Pour savoir quels aliments influencent de manière favorable votre microbiote, lisez Je rééquilibre mon microbiote, du Dr Martine Cotinat.


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