Qu'est-ce que le système nerveux autonome ?

Le système nerveux autonome est la partie involontaire, réflexe et automatique du système nerveux qui gère la quasi totalité des régulations et des adaptations de l’organisme. L’autre branche, le système nerveux somatique, est la branche destinée principalement à l’action, sa mise en œuvre est issue d’une décision, d’une volonté.

Le système nerveux autonome est l'ensemble des structures nerveuses permettant le fonctionnement des organes viscéraux (reins, appareil digestif...) et la régulation des fonctions automatiques de l'organisme. Que ce soit la température corporelle, le taux de sucre dans le sang, les rythmes veille-sommeil, la digestion, les hormones, les émotions… Tout ce beau monde de l’ombre est automatique et géré indépendamment de la volonté par le système nerveux autonome.
Le système nerveux autonome comporte deux branches :

  • le système sympathique qui accélère le coeur,
  • le parasympathique qui le ralentit.

Le sympathique c’est la fuite ou le combat, le parasympathique le repos, la relaxation, la digestion, la récupération et la restauration.

Les deux systèmes sont alternativement stimulés ou inhibés tout au long de la journée en fonction de la demande et de nos activités.

Zoom sur le système nerveux sympathique

Le système nerveux sympathique est lui-même composé de deux grandes entités :

  • Le système alpha-adrénergique qui contrôle notamment la vigilance et l’éveil.
  • Le système bêta-adrénergique qui contrôle le pouls, la respiration et le flux sanguin.

Les médicaments bêta-bloquants comme le propanolol agissent en bloquant les récepteurs bêta-adrénergiques qui, lorsqu’ils sont sur-stimulés, peuvent entraîner trac et phobies.


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